Where can I learn about Unix, HPs, etc?
The CS department has its own FAQ answering many such questions.
How can I read and write on an MSDOS-format floppy disk using Unix?
On an HP workstation that has a floppy disk drive, use various dos commands. Another FAQ lists some of the commands. You can also use the command man -k dos to list the commands, and then use man to get specific information for each command.
Under Linux, it is best to use the mtools that provide a look-alike substitute for DOS file commands tailored to the floppy drive (even using a: to designate the floppy drive!). A copy of the Linux man pages for mtools is located here.
How can I print or save the output from a man command ?
First, you need to find out where the text of the page you want to display is kept. Suppose you want to get, for example, the output from man gettimeofday. The first step is the hardest part --- you'll need to find the source file for the gettimeofday page. When you do a man gettimeofday command, you'll see, at the top of the man page, the character string
gettimeofday(2)This indicates that the page for gettimeofday is in section 2 of the man pages. The next step is to list out the sections of the man pages, which you do with the command ls /usr/man (for locally installed software, you may have to also do ls /usr/local/man or ls /usr/apps/man or ls /usr/pgk/man etc, depending on the whims of how the system administrator set up your system). You'll likely see a directory man2 listed, or perhaps a man2.Z directory, or something similar that implies section 2 of the pages. Now try a command such as
ls /usr/man/man2.Z/gettim*(or a similar variation in other directories; there are faster ways of tracking down the file using find as well on some systems). On the computer science HP systems, you'll see the response
/usr/man/man2.Z/gettimeofda.2Notice how the final y of the name was truncated (frustrating, but that's just the way it is). I recommend here that you copy this file to your own directory, so you can easily manipulate it.
cp /usr/man/man2.Z/gettimeofda.2 tempfile.ZThe letter Z above is an indication that the file copied was previously compressed (we suspect this because the directory name is man2.Z; when you see a file or directory name that has a suffix of .Z or .gz then it is very likely in compressed format). Now you'll need to uncompress the file with the command
gunzip tempfile.ZThis removes the file tempfile.Z and creates the file tempfile (see man uncompress or man gunzip if you want to know the details). Finally, we have something to work with. You may now edit the file tempfile, but you'll notice it is not exactly the man gettimeofday result you want! But we are almost done. All it takes now is the command
groff -man tempfile > output.psto format the page and store it in a file called output.ps, which will be a postscript file ready to print or display with the ghostview utility. On the other hand, if you want just an ascii-like output, the command
nroff -man tempfile | lp -dpXXXcould be used to print the pages directly to printer XXX. There a section on printing man pages in the departmental FAQ also, but with considerably less explanation.
How can I see the routing table?
On the Linux systems, this is easy: just use the route command with no operands or options, and it will display the current routing table. Unfortunately, this doesn't work on the HP systems, where the syntax for route is different. On the HP systems use the command netstat -rnv and you will get a representation of the routing table; the routing address and netmask are displayed together, as follows:
Routing tables Dest/Netmask Gateway Flags Refs Use Interface Pmtu PmtuTime 127.0.0.1/255.255.255.255 127.0.0.1 UH 0 47339 lo0 4608 188.8.131.52/255.255.255.255 127.0.0.1 UH 0 745489 lo0 4608 default/0.0.0.0 184.108.40.206 UG 24 786654 lan0 1500 220.127.116.11/255.255.255.0 18.104.22.168 U 29 3638857 lan0 1500In this somewhat cryptic output, we see that the netmask for 127.0.0.1 is 255.255.255.255, and that any destination address of the form 128.255.28.x will match the table's last entry, and be sent on the lan0 interface. Since the flag on the last line is U and not UG, the last line is not a gateway, so the "Gateway" column in the last line (showing 22.214.171.124) is not really meaningful --- the actual hardware address will be filled in from the ARP table using the 128.255.28.x destination address in the datagram.
How can ping not work if traceroute works for some IP address?
This seems puzzling at first: after all, both commands use ICMP to get their results. The answer can be found by careful reading of the man pages for these two commands and some knowledge of datagram filtering. Let's consider how the two commands use ICMP.
To preserve some stability and prevent accidental erasure of files, we have given the root a password. Henceforth, you should logon as user, which has the password user. If you need to use some superuser command, such as ping -f 126.96.36.199 (a flooding ping), then prefix the command with sudo, for example sudo ping -f 188.8.131.52 will execute the command as superuser. Also, we now have assigned permanent names and IP numbers to the lab machines. The name of each machine is its number in English, so the machine names are one, two, three, and so on. The IP numbers are 128.255.28.x where x is the machine number (1-9).
This mystery was solved by the TA. It seems that some students earlier typed in the command copy myfile a: (or similar), which created a file called a: on the local directory! This confuses the mcopy command. The solution is to erase the a: file, with the command rm a: and then try your mcopy command again.
The following answer was contributed by a class member, Andy Bergen (email@example.com). Thanks Andy!
Here are a few ways to make the slides nice and small (yet readable) PDF 1. Load the .pdf file into Acrobat Reader. 2. Print to a file, call it slides.ps Be sure to click the "Shrink to Fit" option The file is now on your system (account, whatever) in .ps format. 3. Reduce it to "x" slides per page with: psnup -l -x slides.ps slidessmall.ps I use x as 2 or 4, depending. slidessmall.ps now is a postscript file of the 2upped or 4upped notes. 4. Use pstops to further process the slides pstops 1:0@.92 slidessmall.ps slidesfinal.ps 5. Then print! lp -p105 slidesfinal.ps PS 1. Right click on the link to download the file to your system. 2. Get it to .ps format (unzip if necessary) 3. Repeat steps 3-5 above. There are also man pages for psnup and pstops I can explain further or demonstrate if necessary.
Give it your logon password (user). The sudo tries to limit this nagging by asking for the password only once every five minutes in a session where you are sudo-ing.
The mcopy command may require superuser privileges. Therefore instead the command mcopy myfile a: use sudo mcopy myfile a:
Some of the administrative and network commands are in the /sbin directory, which is not the default command path for user. Try /sbin/route and /sbin/arp to use these commands. In addition, you may need to use sudo if you are changing some network parameters rather than just information-only usages of these commands.
There are Linux manpages for tcpshow and tcpdump. If you want to try tcpdump in our lab network of PCs, here is what to do: