Linux tcpdump(1) Manual Page

Table of Contents

NAME

tcpdump - dump traffic on a network

SYNOPSIS

tcpdump [ -adeflnNOpqStvx ] [ -c count ] [ -F file ] [ -i interface ] [ -r file ] [ -s snaplen ] [ -T type ] [ -w file ] [ expression ]

DESCRIPTION

Tcpdump prints out the headers of packets on a network interface that match the boolean expression.

Under SunOS with nit or bpf: To run tcpdump you must have read access to /dev/nit or /dev/bpf*. Under Solaris with dlpi: You must have read access to the network pseudo device, e.g. /dev/le. Under HP-UX with dlpi: You must be root or it must be installed setuid to root. Under IRIX with snoop: You must be root or it must be installed setuid to root. Under Linux: You must be root or it must be installed setuid to root. Under Ultrix and Digital UNIX: Once the super-user has enabled promiscuous-mode operation using pfconfig(8), any user may run tcpdump. Under BSD: You must have read access to /dev/bpf*.

OPTIONS

-a
Attempt to convert network and broadcast addresses to names.

-c
Exit after receiving count packets.

-d
Dump the compiled packet-matching code in a human readable form to standard output and stop.

-dd
Dump packet-matching code as a C program fragment.

-ddd
Dump packet-matching code as decimal numbers (preceded with a count).

-e
Print the link-level header on each dump line.

-f
Print `foreign' internet addresses numerically rather than symbolically (this option is intended to get around serious brain damage in Sun's yp server -- usually it hangs forever translating nonlocal internet numbers).

-F
Use file as input for the filter expression. An additional expression given on the command line is ignored.

-i
Listen on interface. If unspecified, tcpdump searches the system interface list for the lowest numbered, configured up interface (excluding loopback). Ties are broken by choosing the earliest match.

-l
Make stdout line buffered. Useful if you want to see the data while capturing it. E.g., ``tcpdump -l | tee dat'' or ``tcpdump -l > dat & tail -f dat''.

-n
Don't convert addresses (i.e., host addresses, port numbers, etc.) to names.

-N
Don't print domain name qualification of host names. E.g., if you give this flag then tcpdump will print ``nic'' instead of ``nic.ddn.mil''.

-O
Do not run the packet-matching code optimizer. This is useful only if you suspect a bug in the optimizer.

-p
Don't put the interface into promiscuous mode. Note that the interface might be in promiscuous mode for some other reason; hence, `-p' cannot be used as an abbreviation for `ether host {local-hwaddr} or ether broadcast'.

-q
Quick (quiet?) output. Print less protocol information so output lines are shorter.

-r
Read packets from file (which was created with the -w option). Standard input is used if file is ``-''.

-s
Snarf snaplen bytes of data from each packet rather than the default of 68 (with SunOS's NIT, the minimum is actually 96). 68 bytes is adequate for IP, ICMP, TCP and UDP but may truncate protocol information from name server and NFS packets (see below). Packets truncated because of a limited snapshot are indicated in the output with ``[|proto]'', where proto is the name of the protocol level at which the truncation has occurred. Note that taking larger snapshots both increases the amount of time it takes to process packets and, effectively, decreases the amount of packet buffering. This may cause packets to be lost. You should limit snaplen to the smallest number that will capture the protocol information you're interested in.

-T
Force packets selected by "expression" to be interpreted the specified type. Currently known types are rpc (Remote Procedure Call), rtp (Real-Time Applications protocol), rtcp (Real-Time Applications control protocol), vat (Visual Audio Tool), and wb (distributed White Board).

-S
Print absolute, rather than relative, TCP sequence numbers.

-t
Don't print a timestamp on each dump line.

-tt
Print an unformatted timestamp on each dump line.

-v
(Slightly more) verbose output. For example, the time to live and type of service information in an IP packet is printed.

-vv
Even more verbose output. For example, additional fields are printed from NFS reply packets.

-w
Write the raw packets to file rather than parsing and printing them out. They can later be printed with the -r option. Standard output is used if file is ``-''.

-x
Print each packet (minus its link level header) in hex. The smaller of the entire packet or snaplen bytes will be printed.

expression
selects which packets will be dumped. If no expression is given, all packets on the net will be dumped. Otherwise, only packets for which expres_sion is `true' will be dumped.

The expression consists of one or more primitives. Primitives usually consist of an id (name or number) preceded by one or more qualifiers. There are three different kinds of qualifier:

type qualifiers say what kind of thing the id name or number refers to. Possible types are host, net and port. E.g., `host foo', `net 128.3', `port 20'. If there is no type qualifier, host is assumed.

dir
qualifiers specify a particular transfer direction to and/or from id. Possible directions are src, dst, src or dst and src and dst. E.g., `src foo', `dst net 128.3', `src or dst port ftp-data'. If there is no dir qualifier, src or dst is assumed. For `null' link layers (i.e. point to point protocols such as slip) the inbound and outbound qualifiers can be used to specify a desired direction.

proto qualifiers restrict the match to a particular protocol. Possible protos are: ether, fddi, ip, arp, rarp, decnet, lat, sca, moprc, mopdl, tcp and udp. E.g., `ether src foo', `arp net 128.3', `tcp port 21'. If there is no proto qualifier, all protocols consistent with the type are assumed. E.g., `src foo' means `(ip or arp or rarp) src foo' (except the latter is not legal syntax), `net bar' means `(ip or arp or rarp) net bar' and `port 53' means `(tcp or udp) port 53'.

[`fddi' is actually an alias for `ether'; the parser treats them identically as meaning ``the data link level used on the specified network interface.'' FDDI headers contain Ethernet-like source and destination addresses, and often contain Ethernet-like packet types, so you can filter on these FDDI fields just as with the analogous Ethernet fields. FDDI headers also contain other fields, but you cannot name them explicitly in a filter expression.]

In addition to the above, there are some special `primitive' keywords that don't follow the pattern: gateway, broadcast, less, greater and arithmetic expressions. All of these are described below.

More complex filter expressions are built up by using the words and, or and not to combine primitives. E.g., `host foo and not port ftp and not port ftp-data'. To save typing, identical qualifier lists can be omitted. E.g., `tcp dst port ftp or ftp-data or domain' is exactly the same as `tcp dst port ftp or tcp dst port ftp-data or tcp dst port domain'.

Allowable primitives are:

dst host host
True if the IP destination field of the packet is host, which may be either an address or a name.

src host host
True if the IP source field of the packet is host.

host host
True if either the IP source or destination of the packet is host. Any of the above host expressions can be prepended with the keywords, ip, arp, or rarp as in: ip host host
which is equivalent to:
ether proto \ip and host host

If host is a name with multiple IP addresses, each address will be checked for a match.

ether dst ehost
True if the ethernet destination address is ehost. Ehost may be either a name from /etc/ethers or a number (see ethers(3N) for numeric format).

ether src ehost
True if the ethernet source address is ehost.

ether host ehost
True if either the ethernet source or destination address is ehost.

gateway host
True if the packet used host as a gateway. I.e., the ethernet source or destination address was host but neither the IP source nor the IP destination was host. Host must be a name and must be found in both /etc/hosts and /etc/ethers. (An equivalent expression is
ether host ehost and not host host which can be used with either names or numbers for host / ehost.)

dst net net
True if the IP destination address of the packet has a network number of net. Net may be either a name from /etc/networks or a network number (see networks(4) for details).

src net net
True if the IP source address of the packet has a network number of net.

net net
True if either the IP source or destination address of the packet has a network number of net.

net net mask mask
True if the IP address matches net with the specific netmask. May be qualified with src or dst.

net net/len
True if the IP address matches net a netmask len bits wide. May be qualified with src or dst.

dst port port
True if the packet is ip/tcp or ip/udp and has a destination port value of port. The port can be a number or a name used in /etc/services (see tcp(4P) and udp(4P)). If a name is used, both the port number and protocol are checked. If a number or ambiguous name is used, only the port number is checked (e.g., dst port 513 will print both tcp/login traffic and udp/who traffic, and port domain will print both tcp/domain and udp/domain traffic).

src port port
True if the packet has a source port value of port.

port port
True if either the source or destination port of the packet is port. Any of the above port expressions can be prepended with the keywords, tcp or udp, as in: tcp src port port
which matches only tcp packets whose source port is port.

less length
True if the packet has a length less than or equal to length. This is equivalent to: len <= length.

greater length
True if the packet has a length greater than or equal to length. This is equivalent to: len >= length.

ip proto protocol
True if the packet is an ip packet (see ip(4P)) of protocol type protocol. Protocol can be a number or one of the names icmp, igrp, udp, nd, or tcp. Note that the identifiers tcp, udp, and icmp are also keywords and must be escaped via backslash (\), which is \\ in the C-shell.

ether broadcast
True if the packet is an ethernet broadcast packet. The ether keyword is optional.

ip broadcast
True if the packet is an IP broadcast packet. It checks for both the all-zeroes and all-ones broadcast conventions, and looks up the local subnet mask.

ether multicast
True if the packet is an ethernet multicast packet. The ether keyword is optional. This is shorthand for `ether[0] & 1 != 0'.

ip multicast
True if the packet is an IP multicast packet.

ether proto protocol
True if the packet is of ether type proto_col. Protocol can be a number or a name like ip, arp, or rarp. Note these identifiers are also keywords and must be escaped via backslash (\). [In the case of FDDI (e.g., `fddi protocol arp'), the protocol identification comes from the 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC) header, which is usually layered on top of the FDDI header. Tcpdump assumes, when filtering on the protocol identifier, that all FDDI packets include an LLC header, and that the LLC header is in so-called SNAP format.]

decnet src host
True if the DECNET source address is host, which may be an address of the form ``10.123'', or a DECNET host name. [DECNET host name support is only available on Ultrix systems that are configured to run DECNET.]

decnet dst host
True if the DECNET destination address is host.

decnet host host
True if either the DECNET source or destination address is host.

ip, arp, rarp, decnet
Abbreviations for:
ether proto p
where p is one of the above protocols.

lat, moprc, mopdl
Abbreviations for:
ether proto p
where p is one of the above protocols. Note that tcpdump does not currently know how to parse these protocols.

tcp, udp, icmp
Abbreviations for:
ip proto p
where p is one of the above protocols.

expr relop expr
True if the relation holds, where relop is one of >, <, >=, <=, =, !=, and expr is an arithmetic expression composed of integer constants (expressed in standard C syntax), the normal binary operators [+, -, *, /, &, |], a length operator, and special packet data accessors. To access data inside the packet, use the following syntax: proto [ expr : size ] Proto is one of ether, fddi, ip, arp, rarp, tcp, udp, or icmp, and indicates the protocol layer for the index operation. The byte offset, relative to the indicated protocol layer, is given by expr. Size is optional and indicates the number of bytes in the field of interest; it can be either one, two, or four, and defaults to one. The length operator, indicated by the keyword len, gives the length of the packet.

For example, `ether[0] & 1 != 0' catches all multicast traffic. The expression `ip[0] & 0xf != 5' catches all IP packets with options. The expression `ip[6:2] & 0x1fff = 0' catches only unfragmented datagrams and frag zero of fragmented datagrams. This check is implicitly applied to the tcp and udp index operations. For instance, tcp[0] always means the first byte of the TCP header, and never means the first byte of an intervening fragment.

Primitives may be combined using:

A parenthesized group of primitives and operators (parentheses are special to the Shell and must be escaped).

Negation (`!' or `not').

Concatenation (`&&' or `and').

Alternation (`||' or `or').

Negation has highest precedence. Alternation and concatenation have equal precedence and associate left to right. Note that explicit and tokens, not juxtaposition, are now required for concatenation.

If an identifier is given without a keyword, the most recent keyword is assumed. For example, not host vs and ace
is short for
not host vs and host ace
which should not be confused with not ( host vs or ace )

Expression arguments can be passed to tcpdump as either a single argument or as multiple arguments, whichever is more convenient. Generally, if the expression contains Shell metacharacters, it is easier to pass it as a single, quoted argument. Multiple arguments are concatenated with spaces before being parsed.

EXAMPLES

       To print all packets arriving at or departing from sundown:
              tcpdump host sundown

       To print traffic between helios and either hot or ace:
              tcpdump host helios and \( hot or ace \)

       To print all IP packets between ace and any host except helios:
              tcpdump ip host ace and not helios

       To print all traffic between local hosts and hosts at Berkeley:
              tcpdump net ucb-ether

       To print all ftp traffic through  internet  gateway  snup:  (note
       that   the  expression  is  quoted  to  prevent  the  shell  from
       (mis-)interpreting the parentheses):
              tcpdump 'gateway snup and (port ftp or ftp-data)'

       To print traffic neither sourced  from  nor  destined  for  local
       hosts  (if  you gateway to one other net, this stuff should never
       make it onto your local net).
              tcpdump ip and not net localnet
       To print the start and end packets (the SYN and FIN  packets)  of
       each TCP conversation that involves a non-local host.
              tcpdump 'tcp[13] & 3 != 0 and not src and dst net localnet'

       To  print  IP  packets longer than 576 bytes sent through gateway
       snup:
              tcpdump 'gateway snup and ip[2:2] > 576'

       To print IP broadcast or multicast packets that were not sent via
       ethernet broadcast or multicast:
              tcpdump 'ether[0] & 1 = 0 and ip[16] >= 224'

       To  print  all  ICMP  packets  that are not echo requests/replies
       (i.e., not ping packets):
              tcpdump 'icmp[0] != 8 and icmp[0] != 0"

OUTPUT FORMAT

       The output of tcpdump is protocol dependent.  The following gives
       a brief description and examples of most of the formats.

       Link Level Headers

       If  the  '-e'  option  is given, the link level header is printed
       out.  On ethernets, the source and destination addresses,  proto-
       col, and packet length are printed.

       On  FDDI  networks,  the  '-e' option causes tcpdump to print the
       `frame control' field,  the source and destination addresses, and
       the packet length.  (The `frame control' field governs the inter-
       pretation of the rest of the packet.   Normal  packets  (such  as
       those containing IP datagrams) are `async' packets, with a prior-
       ity value between 0 and 7; for example, `async4'.   Such  packets
       are  assumed  to  contain  an  802.2  Logical  Link Control (LLC)
       packet; the LLC header is printed if it is not an ISO datagram or
       a so-called SNAP packet.

       (N.B.:  The  following  description  assumes familiarity with the
       SLIP compression algorithm described in RFC-1144.)

       On SLIP links, a direction indicator (``I''  for  inbound,  ``O''
       for  outbound),  packet  type,  and  compression  information are
       printed out.  The packet type is printed first.  The three  types
       are  ip,  utcp, and ctcp.  No further link information is printed
       for ip packets.  For TCP packets, the  connection  identifier  is
       printed  following  the  type.   If the packet is compressed, its
       encoded header is printed out.  The special cases are printed out
       as  *S+n  and  *SA+n, where n is the amount by which the sequence
       number (or sequence number and ack) has changed.  If it is not  a
       special  case,  zero  or  more  changes are printed.  A change is
       indicated by U (urgent pointer), W (window), A (ack), S (sequence
       number),  and I (packet ID), followed by a delta (+n or -n), or a
       new value (=n).  Finally, the amount of data in  the  packet  and
       compressed header length are printed.
       For  example, the following line shows an outbound compressed TCP
       packet, with an  implicit  connection  identifier;  the  ack  has
       changed  by 6, the sequence number by 49, and the packet ID by 6;
       there are 3 bytes of data and 6 bytes of compressed header:
              O ctcp * A+6 S+49 I+6 3 (6)

       ARP/RARP Packets

       Arp/rarp output shows the type of request and its arguments.  The
       format  is intended to be self explanatory.  Here is a short sam-
       ple taken from the start of an `rlogin' from host  rtsg  to  host
       csam:
              arp who-has csam tell rtsg
              arp reply csam is-at CSAM
       The  first  line says that rtsg sent an arp packet asking for the
       ethernet address of internet host csam.  Csam  replies  with  its
       ethernet address (in this example, ethernet addresses are in caps
       and internet addresses in lower case).

       This would look less redundant if we had done tcpdump -n:
              arp who-has 128.3.254.6 tell 128.3.254.68
              arp reply 128.3.254.6 is-at 02:07:01:00:01:c4

       If we had done tcpdump -e, the fact  that  the  first  packet  is
       broadcast and the second is point-to-point would be visible:
              RTSG Broadcast 0806  64: arp who-has csam tell rtsg
              CSAM RTSG 0806  64: arp reply csam is-at CSAM
       For  the  first  packet  this says the ethernet source address is
       RTSG, the destination is the ethernet broadcast address, the type
       field  contained  hex  0806 (type ETHER_ARP) and the total length
       was 64 bytes.

       TCP Packets

       (N.B.:The following description assumes familiarity with the  TCP
       protocol  described in RFC-793.  If you are not familiar with the
       protocol, neither this description nor tcpdump will  be  of  much
       use to you.)

       The general format of a tcp protocol line is:
              src > dst: flags data-seqno ack window urgent options
       Src  and  dst  are  the  source  and destination IP addresses and
       ports.  Flags are some combination of S (SYN), F (FIN), P  (PUSH)
       or  R (RST) or a single `.' (no flags).  Data-seqno describes the
       portion of sequence space covered by the data in this packet (see
       example below).  Ack is sequence number of the next data expected
       the other direction on this connection.  Window is the number  of
       bytes  of  receive  buffer space available the other direction on
       this connection.  Urg indicates there is  `urgent'  data  in  the
       packet.   Options  are  tcp  options  enclosed  in angle brackets
       (e.g., ).

       Src, dst and flags are always present.  The other  fields  depend
       on  the  contents  of  the  packet's  tcp protocol header and are
       output only if appropriate.

       Here is the opening portion of an rlogin from host rtsg  to  host
       csam.
              rtsg.1023 > csam.login: S 768512:768512(0) win 4096 
              csam.login > rtsg.1023: S 947648:947648(0) ack 768513 win 4096 
              rtsg.1023 > csam.login: . ack 1 win 4096
              rtsg.1023 > csam.login: P 1:2(1) ack 1 win 4096
              csam.login > rtsg.1023: . ack 2 win 4096
              rtsg.1023 > csam.login: P 2:21(19) ack 1 win 4096
              csam.login > rtsg.1023: P 1:2(1) ack 21 win 4077
              csam.login > rtsg.1023: P 2:3(1) ack 21 win 4077 urg 1
              csam.login > rtsg.1023: P 3:4(1) ack 21 win 4077 urg 1
       The  first  line says that tcp port 1023 on rtsg sent a packet to
       port login on csam.  The S indicates that the SYN flag  was  set.
       The  packet  sequence number was 768512 and it contained no data.
       (The notation is `first:last(nbytes)' which means `sequence  num-
       bers  first up to but not including last which is nbytes bytes of
       user data'.)   There  was  no  piggy-backed  ack,  the  available
       receive  window  was  4096 bytes and there was a max-segment-size
       option requesting an mss of 1024 bytes.

       Csam replies with a similar packet except it  includes  a  piggy-
       backed  ack  for rtsg's SYN.  Rtsg then acks csam's SYN.  The `.'
       means no flags were set.  The packet contained no data  so  there
       is no data sequence number.  Note that the ack sequence number is
       a small integer (1).  The first time tcpdump sees a tcp  `conver-
       sation',  it prints the sequence number from the packet.  On sub-
       sequent packets of the conversation, the difference  between  the
       current packet's sequence number and this initial sequence number
       is printed.  This means that sequence numbers after the first can
       be  interpreted  as relative byte positions in the conversation's
       data stream (with the first data byte each direction being  `1').
       `-S'  will  override  this feature, causing the original sequence
       numbers to be output.

       On the 6th line, rtsg sends  csam  19  bytes  of  data  (bytes  2
       through  20  in  the rtsg -> csam side of the conversation).  The
       PUSH flag is set in the packet.  On the 7th line, csam says  it's
       received data sent by rtsg up to but not including byte 21.  Most
       of this data is apparently sitting in  the  socket  buffer  since
       csam's  receive  window  has  gotten 19 bytes smaller.  Csam also
       sends one byte of data to rtsg in this packet.  On  the  8th  and
       9th lines, csam sends two bytes of urgent, pushed data to rtsg.

       If  the snapshot was small enough that tcpdump didn't capture the
       full TCP header, it interprets as much of the header  as  it  can
       and  then  reports ``[|tcp]'' to indicate the remainder could not
       be interpreted.  If the header contains a bogus option (one  with
       a  length  that's  either  too  small  or  beyond  the end of the
       header), tcpdump reports it as ``[bad opt]'' and does not  inter-
       pret  any  further  options  (since it's impossible to tell where
       they start).  If the header length indicates options are  present
       but  the IP datagram length is not long enough for the options to
       actually be there, tcpdump reports it as ``[bad hdr length]''.

       UDP Packets

       UDP format is illustrated by this rwho packet:
              actinide.who > broadcast.who: udp 84
       This says that port who on host actinide sent a udp  datagram  to
       port  who on host broadcast, the Internet broadcast address.  The
       packet contained 84 bytes of user data.

       Some UDP services are recognized (from the source or  destination
       port  number)  and the higher level protocol information printed.
       In particular, Domain Name service requests  (RFC-1034/1035)  and
       Sun RPC calls (RFC-1050) to NFS.

       UDP Name Server Requests

       (N.B.:The  following  description  assumes  familiarity  with the
       Domain Service protocol described in RFC-1035.  If  you  are  not
       familiar with the protocol, the following description will appear
       to be written in greek.)

       Name server requests are formatted as
              src > dst: id op? flags qtype qclass name (len)
              h2opolo.1538 > helios.domain: 3+ A? ucbvax.berkeley.edu. (37)
       Host h2opolo asked the domain server on  helios  for  an  address
       record  (qtype=A)  associated  with the name ucbvax.berkeley.edu.
       The query id was `3'.  The `+' indicates  the  recursion  desired
       flag  was  set.  The query length was 37 bytes, not including the
       UDP and IP protocol headers.  The query operation was the  normal
       one, Query, so the op field was omitted.  If the op had been any-
       thing else, it would have been printed between the  `3'  and  the
       `+'.   Similarly,  the qclass was the normal one, C_IN, and omit-
       ted.  Any other qclass would have been printed immediately  after
       the `A'.

       A  few  anomalies  are  checked  and  may  result in extra fields
       enclosed in square brackets:  If a query contains an answer, name
       server  or  authority  section,  ancount, nscount, or arcount are
       printed as `[na]', `[nn]' or  `[nau]' where n is the  appropriate
       count.   If any of the response bits are set (AA, RA or rcode) or
       any of the `must be zero' bits are set in bytes  two  and  three,
       `[b2&3=x]'  is  printed, where x is the hex value of header bytes
       two and three.

       UDP Name Server Responses

       Name server responses are formatted as
              src > dst:  id op rcode flags a/n/au type class data (len)
              helios.domain > h2opolo.1538: 3 3/3/7 A 128.32.137.3 (273)
              helios.domain > h2opolo.1537: 2 NXDomain* 0/1/0 (97)
       In the first example, helios responds to query id 3 from  h2opolo
       with  3  answer  records,  3  name server records and 7 authority
       records.  The first answer record is type  A  (address)  and  its
       data  is  internet  address  128.32.137.3.  The total size of the
       response was 273 bytes, excluding UDP and  IP  headers.   The  op
       (Query)  and  response  code  (NoError)  were omitted, as was the
       class (C_IN) of the A record.

       In the second example, helios responds to query 2 with a response
       code  of non-existent domain (NXDomain) with no answers, one name
       server and no authority records.   The  `*'  indicates  that  the
       authoritative  answer  bit was set.  Since there were no answers,
       no type, class or data were printed.

       Other flag characters that might appear are `-' (recursion avail-
       able,  RA, not set) and `|' (truncated message, TC, set).  If the
       `question' section doesn't contain exactly one entry,  `[nq]'  is
       printed.

       Note that name server requests and responses tend to be large and
       the default snaplen of 68 bytes may not  capture  enough  of  the
       packet  to print.  Use the -s flag to increase the snaplen if you
       need to seriously investigate name server traffic.  `-s 128'  has
       worked well for me.

       NFS Requests and Replies

       Sun  NFS  (Network  File System) requests and replies are printed
       as:
              src.xid > dst.nfs: len op args
              src.nfs > dst.xid: reply stat len op results

              sushi.6709 > wrl.nfs: 112 readlink fh 21,24/10.73165
              wrl.nfs > sushi.6709: reply ok 40 readlink "../var"
              sushi.201b > wrl.nfs:
                   144 lookup fh 9,74/4096.6878 "xcolors"
              wrl.nfs > sushi.201b:
                   reply ok 128 lookup fh 9,74/4134.3150

       In the first line, host sushi sends a transaction with id 6709 to
       wrl (note that the number following the src host is a transaction
       id, not the source port).  The request was 112  bytes,  excluding
       the  UDP and IP headers.  The operation was a readlink (read sym-
       bolic link) on file handle (fh) 21,24/10.731657119.  (If  one  is
       lucky,  as  in this case, the file handle can be interpreted as a
       major,minor device number pair, followed by the inode number  and
       generation  number.)   Wrl  replies `ok' with the contents of the
       link.

       In the third line, sushi asks wrl to lookup the name `xcolors' in
       directory  file  9,74/4096.6878.   Note  that  the  data  printed
       depends on the operation type.  The format is intended to be self
       explanatory if read in conjunction with an NFS protocol spec.

       If  the  -v  (verbose)  flag  is given, additional information is
       printed.  For example:

              sushi.1372a > wrl.nfs:
                   148 read fh 21,11/12.195 8192 bytes @ 24576
              wrl.nfs > sushi.1372a:
                   reply ok 1472 read REG 100664 ids 417/0 sz 29388

       (-v also prints the IP header TTL, ID, and fragmentation  fields,
       which  have  been omitted from this example.)  In the first line,
       sushi asks wrl to read 8192 bytes from file 21,11/12.195, at byte
       offset  24576.   Wrl replies `ok'; the packet shown on the second
       line is the first fragment of the reply, and hence is  only  1472
       bytes  long (the other bytes will follow in subsequent fragments,
       but these fragments do not have NFS or even UDP  headers  and  so
       might  not  be printed, depending on the filter expression used).
       Because the -v flag is given, some of the file attributes  (which
       are  returned in addition to the file data) are printed: the file
       type (``REG'', for regular file), the file mode (in  octal),  the
       uid and gid, and the file size.

       If  the  -v  flag  is given more than once, even more details are
       printed.

       Note that NFS requests are very large  and  much  of  the  detail
       won't be printed unless snaplen is increased.  Try using `-s 192'
       to watch NFS traffic.

       NFS reply packets do not explicitly identify the  RPC  operation.
       Instead,  tcpdump keeps track of ``recent'' requests, and matches
       them to the replies using the transaction ID.  If  a  reply  does
       not  closely  follow  the  corresponding request, it might not be
       parsable.

       KIP Appletalk (DDP in UDP)

       Appletalk DDP packets encapsulated in UDP datagrams are de-encap-
       sulated  and  dumped  as  DDP  packets  (i.e., all the UDP header
       information is discarded).  The file /etc/atalk.names is used  to
       translate appletalk net and node numbers to names.  Lines in this
       file have the form
              number    name

              1.254          ether
              16.1      icsd-net
              1.254.110 ace
       The first two lines give the names of  appletalk  networks.   The
       third line gives the name of a particular host (a host is distin-
       guished from a net by the 3rd octet in the number - a net  number
       must  have  two octets and a host number must have three octets.)
       The number and name should be separated by whitespace (blanks  or
       tabs).  The /etc/atalk.names file may contain blank lines or com-
       ment lines (lines starting with a `#').

       Appletalk addresses are printed in the form
              net.host.port
              144.1.209.2 > icsd-net.112.220
              office.2 > icsd-net.112.220
              jssmag.149.235 > icsd-net.2
       (If the /etc/atalk.names doesn't  exist  or  doesn't  contain  an
       entry  for  some appletalk host/net number, addresses are printed
       in numeric form.)  In the first example, NBP (DDP port 2) on  net
       144.1 node 209 is sending to whatever is listening on port 220 of
       net icsd node 112.  The second line is the same except  the  full
       name of the source node is known (`office').  The third line is a
       send from port 235 on net jssmag node 149  to  broadcast  on  the
       icsd-net NBP port (note that the broadcast address (255) is indi-
       cated by a net name with no host number - for this reason it's  a
       good   idea  to  keep  node  names  and  net  names  distinct  in
       /etc/atalk.names).

       NBP (name binding protocol) and ATP (Appletalk transaction proto-
       col)  packets  have  their contents interpreted.  Other protocols
       just dump the protocol name (or number if no name  is  registered
       for the protocol) and packet size.

       NBP packets are formatted like the following examples:
              icsd-net.112.220 > jssmag.2: nbp-lkup 190: "=:LaserWriter@*"
              jssmag.209.2 > icsd-net.112.220: nbp-reply 190: "RM1140:LaserWriter @*" 250
              techpit.2 > icsd-net.112.220: nbp-reply 190: "techpit:LaserWriter@* " 186
       The  first line is a name lookup request for laserwriters sent by
       net icsd host 112 and broadcast on net jssmag.  The  nbp  id  for
       the  lookup  is  190.   The  second  line  shows a reply for this
       request (note that it has the same id) from host jssmag.209  say-
       ing  that it has a laserwriter resource named "RM1140" registered
       on port 250.  The third line is another reply to the same request
       saying  host techpit has laserwriter "techpit" registered on port
       186.

       ATP packet formatting is demonstrated by the following example:
              jssmag.209.165 > helios.132: atp-req  12266<0-7> 0xae030001
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:0 (512) 0xae040000
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:1 (512) 0xae040000
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:2 (512) 0xae040000
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:3 (512) 0xae040000
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:4 (512) 0xae040000
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:5 (512) 0xae040000
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:6 (512) 0xae040000
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp*12266:7 (512) 0xae040000
              jssmag.209.165 > helios.132: atp-req  12266<3,5> 0xae030001
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:3 (512) 0xae040000
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:5 (512) 0xae040000
              jssmag.209.165 > helios.132: atp-rel  12266<0-7> 0xae030001
              jssmag.209.133 > helios.132: atp-req* 12267<0-7> 0xae030002
       Jssmag.209 initiates transaction id 12266  with  host  helios  by
       requesting  up to 8 packets (the `<0-7>').  The hex number at the
       end of the line is the value  of  the  `userdata'  field  in  the
       request.

       Helios  responds with 8 512-byte packets.  The `:digit' following
       the transaction id gives the packet sequence number in the trans-
       action  and  the  number  in  parens is the amount of data in the
       packet, excluding the atp header.  The `*' on packet 7  indicates
       that the EOM bit was set.

       Jssmag.209  then  requests  that  packets 3 & 5 be retransmitted.
       Helios resends them then  jssmag.209  releases  the  transaction.
       Finally,  jssmag.209  initiates the next request.  The `*' on the
       request indicates that XO (`exactly once') was not set.

       IP Fragmentation

       Fragmented Internet datagrams are printed as
              (frag id:size@offset+)
              (frag id:size@offset)
       (The first form indicates there are more fragments.   The  second
       indicates this is the last fragment.)

       Id  is  the  fragment  id.   Size is the fragment size (in bytes)
       excluding the IP header.  Offset is this  fragment's  offset  (in
       bytes) in the original datagram.

       The  fragment information is output for each fragment.  The first
       fragment contains the higher level protocol header and  the  frag
       info  is  printed  after  the protocol info.  Fragments after the
       first contain no higher level protocol header and the  frag  info
       is printed after the source and destination addresses.  For exam-
       ple, here is part of an ftp  from  arizona.edu  to  lbl-rtsg.arpa
       over  a  CSNET  connection that doesn't appear to handle 576 byte
       datagrams:
              arizona.ftp-data > rtsg.1170: . 1024:1332(308) ack 1 win 4096 (frag 595a:328@0+)
              arizona > rtsg: (frag 595a:204@328)
              rtsg.1170 > arizona.ftp-data: . ack 1536 win 2560
       There are a couple of things to note here:  First,  addresses  in
       the 2nd line don't include port numbers.  This is because the TCP
       protocol information is all in the first fragment and we have  no
       idea  what  the  port  or  sequence numbers are when we print the
       later fragments.  Second, the tcp  sequence  information  in  the
       first  line  is  printed  as if there were 308 bytes of user data
       when, in fact, there are 512 bytes (308 in the first frag and 204
       in  the  second).   If  you are looking for holes in the sequence
       space or trying to match up acks with packets, this can fool you.

       A  packet with the IP don't fragment flag is marked with a trail-
       ing (DF).

       Timestamps

       By default, all output lines are preceded by  a  timestamp.   The
       timestamp is the current clock time in the form
              hh:mm:ss.frac
       and is as accurate as the kernel's clock.  The timestamp reflects
       the time the kernel first saw the packet.  No attempt is made  to
       account  for  the  time  lag  between when the ethernet interface
       removed the packet from the wire and when the kernel serviced the
       `new packet' interrupt.

SEE ALSO

traffic(1C), nit(4P), bpf(4), pcap(3)

AUTHORS

Van Jacobson, Craig Leres and Steven McCanne, all of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

The current version is available via anonymous ftp:

ftp://ftp.ee.lbl.gov/tcpdump.tar.Z

BUGS

Please send bug reports to tcpdump@ee.lbl.gov.

NIT doesn't let you watch your own outbound traffic, BPF will. We recommend that you use the latter.

Some attempt should be made to reassemble IP fragments or, at least to compute the right length for the higher level protocol.

Name server inverse queries are not dumped correctly: The (empty) question section is printed rather than real query in the answer section. Some believe that inverse queries are themselves a bug and prefer to fix the program generating them rather than tcpdump.

Apple Ethertalk DDP packets could be dumped as easily as KIP DDP packets but aren't. Even if we were inclined to do anything to promote the use of Ethertalk (we aren't), LBL doesn't allow Ethertalk on any of its networks so we'd would have no way of testing this code.

A packet trace that crosses a daylight savings time change will give skewed time stamps (the time change is ignored).

Filters expressions that manipulate FDDI headers assume that all FDDI packets are encapsulated Ethernet packets. This is true for IP, ARP, and DECNET Phase IV, but is not true for protocols such as ISO CLNS. Therefore, the filter may inadvertently accept certain packets that do not properly match the filter expression.